John Locke ( 1632 – 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the “Father of Liberalism”.
His writings influenced for instance Voltaire, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, and his liberal theories are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.
Locke’s theory of mind deals with the conceptions of identity and the self. He defines the self as ” a continuity of consciousness”, independently of the identity of substance and that the person self-consciously appropriates actions as its own.
According to his writings, it is by reason and tolerance one grasps the truth about society and determine the legitimate functions of institutions. By doing so one optimize human flourishing for the individual and society both in respect to its material and spiritual welfare.
“The end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom. For in all the states of created beings capable of law, where there is no law, there is no freedom.” John Locke